13.DISINFECTANTS & ANTISEPTICS                                                                                 

 LYSOL

General information

Drug Code                              Preparation                             Strength

      70                                      Lysol (cresol with soap)            50 %

 

Description of the Drug

Lysol (cresol with soap) solution is a phenolic compound used as a disinfectant. It is unsuitable for use on human beings.

 

Mode of Action

It acts by disruption of cell membranes and denaturation of proteins and enzymes of the cell. It is effective against vegetative gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and viruses.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications  

As a general disinfectant for domestic or hospital use like disinfection of floors, bathrooms, washbasins, organic waste  such as sputum,faeces, urine etc.,

 

Disadvantages

    Too toxic to be used as an antiseptic on human beings.

    It is not effective when combined with cationic agents and  in alkaline PH.

 

Drug Toxicity

If ingested corrosion, pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, diarrhoea, CNS depression, circulatory and respiratory failure, pulmonary edema, myocardial and  damage, liver and kidney dysfunction.

 

Treatment of Toxicity

    If swallowed, gastric lavage should be done with water and olive oil (or any other vegetable oil) added to water to delay absorption. Activated charcoal may be used.

    If spilled on skin remove contaminated clothing, blot off excess Lysol and wash skin with copious amounts of water and then with a vegetable oil.

    Keep the patient warm.

    Supportive treatment.

 

Storage

            Store in airtight containers, protect from the light.

 

Shelf life                      5 years.

 

 

SURGICAL SPIRIT

 

General Information

 

Drug Code                              Preparation                             Strength

      199                                    Surgical spirit                            70 % alcohol.

 

Description of the Drug

Methyl salicylate 0.5 ml, diethyl phthalate 2 % castor oil 2.5 % in industrial methlated spirit (19 parts absolute alcohol with 1 part wood naphthalene).

 

Mode of Action

Acts by dissolving cell membranes, proteins denaturation and dehydration of the cells due to evaporation. It is a bacteriostatic antiseptic, mild rubifacient and counter irritant when used on excoriated skin and mucosa.

 

Pharmacokinetics :

            On external application, it evaporates and causes a cooling sensation.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications  

    Disinfections of skin before minor surgical procedures, injections, venepunctures etc.,

    Disinfections of instruments such as thermometers etc.,

 

Route of Administration     External application only.

 

Contraindications  

Excoriated and broken skin, external wounds, inflamed mucous membrane, since it acts as a counter irritant and produces severe burning and irritating sensation.

 

Disadvantages

    Cannot be relied upon to completely eliminate all bacteria as it only helps to reduce the number of organisms.

    Not active against spores, viruses and mycobacteria.

    May  lose its efficiency in the presence of contaminated orgainic matter.

 

Storage

            Store in closed containers, as it is volatile and away from direct sunlight.

 

Shelf    Life                 2   years.

 

 

FORMALDEHYDE SOLUTION

 

General information

 

Drug Code                              Preparation                              Unit

      200                                    Formaldehyde solution  450 ml bottle

 

Description of the Drug

Formaldehyde solution is a disinfectant belonging to aldehyde group. It is active against bacteria, fungi and many viruses and spores.

 

Mode of Action

It acts by protein denaturation and reacting with the amine group in the cells, thus acting as a cytotoxic agent. Sterilization time is 12 hours.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications  

    Disinfections of organic  waste, hospital floors, walls and other sites.

    Suitable for metallic instruments , plastic, glass and tubes.

    Disinfection of membranes in dialysis equipment.

    It is used as a preservative for pathological specimens.

 

Disadvantages

    Formaldehyde vapour is irritant to the eyes , nose and upper respiratory tract.

    Contact dermatitis and sensitivity reactions may occur.

 

Drug Toxicity

Ingestion of formaldehyde solution causes intense pain with inflammation, ulceration and necrosis of mucous membranes.

There may be vomiting, haematemesis, metabolic acidosis vertigo, convulsions, loss of consciousness, circulatory failure and death. It may also cause laryngeal spasm and pulmonary edema.

 

Treatment of Toxicity

    Contaminated skin should be washed with soap water.

    After ingestion, milk charcoal or demulcents can be given for prevention of absorption.

    Avoid gastric lavage and emesis.

    Assisted ventilation if indicated.

    Acidosis, resulting from the metabolism of formaldehyde to formic acid, may require the intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate or sodium lactate.

    Haemodialysis may be useful.

           

Storage

            Store at a temperature between 15 25o C in airtight containers.

 

Shelf    Life                 3 years.

 

 

 

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

General information

 

Drug Code                              Preparation                             Strength

       383                                   Hydrogen Peroxide                   20 volumes

 

Description of the Drug

Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidising agent, disinfectant and deodorant. It is bactericidal with a wide spectrum of action.

           

Mode of Action

It releases nascent oxygen which is highly reactive. Its combines with and oxidises necrotic matter and bacteria.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications  

            To cleanse infected wounds and  ulcers desloughs devitalized tissue.

 

Contraindications  

            Normal skin.

 

Precaution / Practice Points

            Corrosive to normal tissue.

            Bleaches fabric.

 

Disadvantages

Transient action, poor penetration, acts only on the surface. May produce contact dermatitis.

 

Drug Interactions

Hydrogen  peroxide solution is incompatible with reducing agents including organic matter and oxidisadble substances and with some metals, metallic salts, alkalies, iodides, permanganates and other stronger oxidizing agents.

 

Adverse Effects

It is strong corrosive , and produces irritating burns on the skin and mucous membranes with a white eschar.

 

Drug Toxicity

If accidentally ingested or with suicidal intention, it is a strong corrosive esophageal ulcers, haematemesis and bleeding.

 

Storage

            Store in airtight containers at 15 30o C.  Protect from light.

 

Shelf    Life                 2 years.

 

 

GLUTARALDEHYDE

           

General information

 

Drug Code                              Preparation                             Strength

      384                                    Glutaraldehyde solution 5 litres can.

 

Description of the Drug

Glutaraldehyde is a bactericidal disinfectant which is rapidly effective against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, viruses including HBV, HIV fungi and spores.

 

Mode of Action

It acts by denaturation of cell proteins by reacting with cellular constituents. Sterilization time is 10 12 hours.  Disinfection  time  is 10 minutes.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications  

Used for the sterilization of endoscopic and dental instruments, rubber or plastic equipment, and for other equipment which cannot be sterilized by heat.

 

Disadvantages

    Efficacy is less in the presence of organic matter. Hence used for sterilizing precleaned equipments.

    May leave a greasy residue after sterilization.

 

Adverse Effects

    Nausea, headache, breathlessness, rhinitis, eye irritation and dermatitis.

    Skin reactions due to hypersensitivity or direct irritant effect.

 

Drug Toxicity

Ingestion causes intense pain, with inflamnation, ulceration and necrosis of mucous  membranes with vomiting, haematemesis, blood-staioned diarrhoea, haematuria, anuria, metabolic acidosis, vertigo convulsion, loss of consciousness and circulatatory failure.

 

Treatment of Toxicity

    Avoid gastric lavage and emesis.

    Give milk, water charcoal or demulcents for prevention of absorption.

    Assisted ventilation if indicated.

    Acidosis may require I.V. administration of sodium bicarbonate or sodium lactate.

 

Storage

Store at temperature not exceeding 40o C in airtight containers. Protect from light.

 

Shelf    Life                 3 years.

 

 

DEODORANT PHENYL

General information

 

Drug Code                              Preparation                             Unit

      456                                    Deodorant phenyl                     5 litres.

 

Description of the Drug

            It is a mixture of phenols and cresols, used as a disinfectant.

Spectrum of action gram positive, gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria. No activity against viruses, fungi and spores.

 

Mode of Action

            It acts by rupture of cell membranes and  denaturation of cellular constituents.

 

Advantages

    Can be used in preservation of organic wastes.

    Cheap and close effective.

 

 

Disadvantages

    Too toxic to be used as an antiseptic on skin

    Duration of contact must be long 6 12 hours.

    Its activity decreases in alkaline pH.

    Not compatible with cationic surface-active agents.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications  

    Disinfectant for bathrooms, floors, washbasins etc.,

    Waste disinfection infective wastes such as sputum, urine, faeces etc and body fluids can be disinfected before disposal.

 

Drug Toxicity

If ingested local corrosion, pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, diarrhoea, CNS depression, circulatory and respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and myocardial damage, liver and kidney dysfunction.

 

Treatment of Toxicity

    If swallowed, gastric lavage should be done with water and olive oil (or another vegetable oil) to delay absorption.  Activated charcoal may be used.

    If spilled on skin remove contaminated clothing, blot off the excess and wash skin well with copious amounts of water, followed by a vegetable oil.

    Keep the patient warm.

    Supportive treatment.

 

Storage

            Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.

 

Shelf  life        5 years.

 

CHLOROXYLENOL CREAM

 

General information

 

Drug Code                              Preparation                                  Strength

      457                                    Chloroxylenol cream                     4 % w/v.

 

Description of the Drug

            Chloroxylenol is a chlorinated phenolic antiseptic.

 

Mode of Action

            It is bactericidal against most gram-positive bacteria.

 

Clinical Information

 

Indications   

            Lubricating cream for vaginal examination; used on obstetrical forceps etc.,

 

Advantages

            Non-corrosive, nonirritating to skin.

 

Dosage

            Use as required.

 

Route of Administration

            External application only.

 

Storage

            Store in a cool, dry, dark place.

 

Shelf    Life             2   years.